Posted on July 22, 2016 · Posted in Intelligence

Herbert Simon has developed his theoretical framework of bounded rationality already since 1955 and since then published several hundreds of articles from this subject area. One of his main argument for this theoretical view of how information should be processed is the acceptance of situative boundaries and personal barriers.

Categorizing information and navigating behavior is in need for pieces of information pointing physical boundaries towards logic, as well as towards scientific concepts as for example coloring pieces of information, spatial complexities, and psychological pieces of information. Taking, for example, the necessity to handle terminals and processing access information, next to remembering codes, dates, and data physical conditions are more important of how easy terminals can be accessed.

Categorizing pieces of information are not just used in these situations, but also for goal settings during daily routines, for example being faster with your garden work, being better with your ability to program or better understand the scope of an article. Scripted information is for example used for judgmental anchoring, as Thomas Mussweiler has shown with his study from 2001. Semantic information is only then taken as reliable and significant when differences having an effect as the differences between the UN complex and the World Trade Center.

His results are implicating, that changes of numeric pieces of information are just as important when the changes also have semantic meaning. Understanding information is as important like selecting heuristics next to the semantic and numerical information. When taken into account, that visual features are necessary judging pieces of information and then also for encoding encrypted informative constructions.

Subjective barriers are limitations within the argumentation of Herbert Simon and can be seen in two concepts. The first concept is defined with situative limitations and the second one with personal barriers between specific goals, but also sensitive to conflicts. Potential solutions are tactics and methods, not only shown from Herbert Simon but in a very different context also from Adriaan de Groot as another dimension for the sample problem.

In contrast to Herbert Simon, who proposes satisficing as a mechanism to build for example also offerings for your familiar surroundings, Adriaan de Groot is pointing towards solutions taking the best offers to decide the choice. Each situation is given in different modes of limitations and goals, as well as positive and negative consequences. Categorizing various situations, context variables are then necessary as well as goals to find alternatives for problem-solving. Using categories is just one step when analyzing heuristics.

Studies from different continents, all published since 2000, all found in the field of decision-making are defining problem-solving as a concept to motivate not only myself but also other group members to rational solutions.

As a method that is scientifically necessary and not just intuitive, though most life situations are intuitive and performed without major cognitive effort become.

Heuristics are at the beginning of problem-solving phases, as the modern conception implies, quite different in their conception than the heuristics before 1980. Most heuristics are used to find first robust methods that can solve the problem, but with less destructive ones Impact on the environment, implemented immediately.

As an example, I took a movie scene and a graffiti for the interpretation of pictures. The first is an early-phase motif from the film E.T., the next is a graffiti from Aschaffenburg on a bridge from 2011 with one of the most modern lighting systems of its time.

Scientists such as Teresa Amabile and Michael Mumford, who explore the essence of creativity, not only emphasize intelligence as the sole basis of decision-making for creative ideas, but also emotional and unique elements that are of great importance far beyond decision-making.

Generating ideas usually starts with identifying the various aspects and then defining the problem frames. Being creative and identifying information about subjects and images also depends on how exciting, emotional and urgent scenes are.

Elliott, the human friend of E.T., is on the flight that reaches the nearby forest while the bike suddenly starts to fly automatically. Steven Spielberg has scripted one of the most popular movie scenes in the 80's as Elliott and E.T. cross the orbit viewpoint of the moon, then able to escape.

Based on a psychological ranking system I have a very positive scene with this image, developed with elements of friendship, impressive landscapes, abilities, and even mystical powers, but also open to intelligent information, for example, that subjective assessment is more likely when cycling than driving a car. Taking the different motives together, the tendency for positivity is obvious.

Somewhat different, but influenced by negative emotions, is the graffiti that can still be found on the Ebertbrücke in Aschaffenburg. Developed in 2011 with one of the most advanced lighting systems, this bridge is referred to, for example, modern bridges. Graffiti is integrated into the context of technical understanding when graffiti is used giving the bridge a modern, culturally adapted and stylized feature. This graffiti, which is best labeled as dark opposite the image of an angry but forward-looking head. This negative trait is accompanied by a questioning and emotionally excited facial expressions that doubt without reason.

Alternatives that have been developed with creative formulas then view problems as concepts, prototyping, and selection, not just as creativity. New elements are present when more information is received and things come together, for example, with greater identification and receptive to changes. These concepts not only use creative elements, but also scientific result, communication and information models.